child-directed speech – aka “mothereseuses frequent questions, exaggerated intonation, extra loudness, lots of repetition of key words, slower tempo with more pauses – not “baby talk”

examples: Is that a car? That car looks fast. That car is red. Do you like the car?


choices/ forced choicecan be very specific to a specific child, and so are an excellent teaching tool – great for labeling in general, or for labeling/using specific language skills – ways to make easier or harder…

  • Hold desired object and a non-desired object. “Do you want the cookie…or the paper?”
  • Change the foil. “Is this a pencil or a perpendicularagram?” when you want to make it more obvious that the correct choice is pencil, versus, “Is this a pencil or a pen?”
  • Change the position. “Are you 4 years old, or 20 years old?” versus, “Are you 20 years old, or 4 years old?” It’s naturally easier when the choice is in the last position.