Mental Retardation

– distractibility and a short attention span
– semantic difficulties, with small, more concrete vocabularies
– comprehension superior to expression
– poor morphology
– telegraphic speech
– passive interaction, or physically aggressive interaction
– delays across multiple domains

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

– comprehension problems, especially of sentences
– word-retrieval problems leading to reduced fluency
– syntactic problems, including limited MLU, fewer utterances, and difficulty expressing and understanding long, complex sentences
– reading and writing problems; poor academic performance
– pragmatic problems such as difficulty with turn taking and topic maintenance (often related to poor inhibition and lack of self-monitoring)
– difficulty with attention and focus
– memory problems
– inability to recognize one’s own difficulties
– reduced speed of information processing
– difficulties with reasoning and organization

(from An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology, Celeste Roseberry-McKibben and M.N. Hedge; ProEd; 2000.)