Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

– often blurting out answers to questions before the questions have been completed
– difficulty following through on instructions; often do not seem to be listening
– talking excessively
– interrupting or intruding on others and poor turn-taking skills
– frequent false starts because they change their minds while structuring a response
– excessive number of fillers and pauses because verbal expression occurs with minimal preplanning
– difficulty describing things in an organized, coherent manner – general difficulty with expressive language organization
– do not tell stories or use narrative skills effectively
– difficulty with social entry into conversations
– use inappropriate register; for example, use the same interactive style with adults and peers
– do not perceive or act appropriately upon interlocutors’ nonverbal cues
– do not use comprehension monitoring strategies

Hearing Impairment

– use of a limited variety of sentence types
– use of sentences of reduced length and complexity
– difficulty comprehending and producing compound, complex, and embedded sentences
– occasional irrelevance of speech, including non sequiturs
– limited oral communication, including lack of elaborated speech and reluctance to speak
– difficulty understanding proverbs, metaphors, and other abstract utterances
– slower acquisition of gramamtic morphemes
– omission or inconsistent use of many morphemes including past tense and plural inflections, third-person singular -s, indefinite pronouns, present progressive -ing, articles, prepositions, and conjunctions
– poor reading comprehension
– writing that reflects oral language problems (e.g., deviant syntax, limited variety of sentence types, omission of grammatic morphemes)

(from An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology, Celeste Roseberry-McKibben and M.N. Hedge; ProEd; 2000.)