What follows are some very general descriptions of popular language therapies, used primarily with younger children.  Much of this information has been taken from Roseberry-Mckibben and Hegde’s An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology.

Recasting – When an adult repeats what a child says, altering it to make it grammatically correct.  Two types of recasting are  1)  Expansion – simply making the utterance correct; and 2) Extension – making the utterance grammatically correct and adding information.  Some examples are…

  • Expansion – Child:  “That ball.”;  Adult:  “That is a ball.”
  • Extension – Child:  “That ball.”;  Adult:  “That is a big red bouncy ball.”

Focused Stimulation – The clinician models target structures to stimulate child to produce these specific structures.  This is usually done in a play activity.  For example, the target structures, “off” and “on” may be repeated by the clinician fifty times in a Mr. Potato Head activity in an attempt to elicit the words from the child.  Several target words may be combined in a single activity.

Joint Book Reading – Involves reading high interest stories repeatedly over several sessions.  When children are familiar with the stories, they are expected to fill in target words.  For example, the clinician may say “The woman was _______”, to attempt to elicit -ing verb “driving.”

Self Talk – The clinician describes his or her own activities while playing with the child.